Ayam Cemani Chicken Egg Production

Ayam Cemani chicken is a rare breed of chicken from Indonesia famous for its all-black appearance. Not only is their meat considered a delicacy, but the Ayam Cemani eggs have recently become a hot commodity in the culinary world.

For individuals seeking something new to add to their farms or looking for a unique delicacy to add to the menu, Ayam Cemani chicken egg production may be worth considering.

In this article, we will explore everything there is to know about ayam cemani chicken egg production, including their appearance, breeding patterns, incubation periods, and more.

Overview Of Ayam Cemani Chicken

Ayam Cemani Chickens are an exotic, all-black breed of chicken that originally comes from Indonesia. The breed is unique because of its melanistic, or all-black, appearance that covers not only its feathers, but also its internal organs, bones, and even its eggs.

Ayam Cemani roosters can weigh up to four to five pounds, while hens weigh around three to four pounds. These chickens have a gentle and docile disposition and are relatively easy to care for. They are excellent foragers and can graze in open fields, pastures, or even small residential areas. Additionally, their feathers are prized among collectors and artisans, making them valuable in the craft industry.

Ayam Cemani chickens are considered rare and exotic, but their popularity has increased in recent years. They are now kept as pets and in larger farms around the world because of their unique dark appearance and the perceived health benefits of their meat and eggs. In the following sections, we will cover Ayam Cemani chicken egg production, breeding patterns, incubation, hatching, feeding and care, and more.

Egg-Laying Capabilities Of Ayam Cemani Chicken

Ayam Cemani chickens are distinct from other breeds because of their black or dark blue-colored eggs, which are smaller in size than traditional chicken eggs. Despite their size, these eggs have a higher yolk-to-white ratio, making them ideal for baking and cooking.

These chickens are usually productive layers, and they are consistent in laying eggs throughout the year. On average, hens lay around 80 to 100 eggs in a year, and each egg weighs around 35 to 40 grams. The egg-laying capability of Ayam Cemani chickens is dependent on factors such as the bird’s age, health, and diet.

One of the reasons why Ayam Cemani chickens are sought after is because of the nutritional value of their eggs. They are rich in essential nutrients like protein, vitamins, and minerals. Furthermore, the eggs contain less cholesterol and fat than traditional chicken eggs, making them a healthy and delicious addition to one’s diet.

It is worth noting that Ayam Cemani chickens are not prolific layers like standard commercial laying breeds, such as Leghorns, Rhode Island Reds, or Sex Links. Therefore, their eggs are more expensive and relatively rare in the market, intensifying their allure to those looking for a unique, high-quality product.

Factors Affecting Ayam Cemani Chicken Egg Production

Producing a consistent supply of eggs from Ayam Cemani chickens requires providing optimal conditions to support their overall health, breeding, and egg-laying capabilities. Several factors can affect the egg production of Ayam Cemani chickens, including the following:

  • Age: The peak egg-laying period of a female Ayam Cemani chicken starts at around five months and can last up to two years. Afterward, their egg production tends to decline. Therefore, it is essential to keep track of the birds’ age and replace them when their productivity begins to fall.
  • Diet: Feeding Ayam Cemani chickens with high-quality feeds that contain the necessary nutrients plays a vital role in their egg-laying capabilities. A balanced diet should include a variety of seeds, grains, and protein sources. Supplementary grit and oyster shells must be provided to ensure proper digestion and healthy eggshell production.
  • Lighting: Ayam Cemani hens require around 14 to 16 hours of light per day to remain healthy and maintain consistent egg-laying habits. A lack of exposure to light can impact their circadian rhythm and disrupt their egg-laying cycle.
  • Environment: A comfortable and clean environment encourages egg production. Ayam Cemani chickens require adequate shelter from harsh weather conditions and predators, along with enough space to move around and forage. Moreover, ensuring proper hygiene and sanitation of their living spaces helps to prevent the outbreak of diseases that could compromise their egg-laying capabilities.
  • Genetics: Ayam Cemani chickens’ egg-laying abilities can also be influenced by their genetic background. Selective breeding based on traits like productivity, quality, and appearance can yield improved egg-laying characteristics over time.

Nutrition For Optimal Egg Production

The health and productivity of Ayam Cemani chickens is heavily influenced by their diet. Providing the right nutrients to support their egg-laying capabilities requires paying close attention to their feeding regimen. Here are some general nutritional guidelines to follow when feeding Ayam Cemani chickens:

  • Protein: Protein is essential for healthy egg production in Ayam Cemani chickens. A diet containing around 18% protein is sufficient for most laying hens. Good sources of protein include soybean meal, fish meal, and alfalfa leaf meals.
  • Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are a good source of energy for Ayam Cemani chickens. Corn, wheat, and barley are all excellent sources of carbohydrates to add to their diet.
  • Fats: Fats are essential for Ayam Cemani chickens’ metabolism and normal egg production. Poultry fat, vegetable oils, and fish oils are all acceptable sources of fat for their diet.
  • Vitamins: Providing a balanced vitamin supplement is crucial for optimal egg production. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are essential for developing healthy eggs, and deficiencies can lead to problems like weak eggshells, reduced egg production, and weakened immune systems.
  • Minerals: Including minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in the diet is essential for healthy eggshell production. Grit and oyster shells also help to provide the needed minerals and support digestion.

It is also important to ensure that Ayam Cemani chickens have continuous access to clean water to support their overall health and egg production. Maintaining a balanced and nutrient-rich diet can ensure healthy and consistent egg production in Ayam Cemani chickens.

Health And Wellness Of Ayam Cemani Chicken

Maintaining the health and wellness of Ayam Cemani chickens is essential for optimal egg production. As a breed, Ayam Cemani chickens are generally hardy, but they can still develop health issues if their basic needs are not met. Here are some factors to consider when keeping Ayam Cemani chickens healthy:

  • Biosecurity: To prevent infectious diseases, it is important to have good biosecurity protocols in place. Quarantine new birds before introducing them to the flock, provide adequate space, and avoid sharing equipment and feeders between flocks.
  • Clean environment: A clean and sanitary environment is critical for maintaining the health of Ayam Cemani chickens. Regular cleaning of their coop or shelter, providing fresh bedding and water, and proper manure management are all essential.
  • Parasite control: Parasites are a common problem in chickens and can lead to decreased egg production and other health issues. Regular deworming and treatment for external parasites can help to prevent infestations.
  • Vaccinations: Vaccinations against common poultry diseases such as Marek’s and Newcastle disease can protect Ayam Cemani chickens from these illnesses.
  • Monitoring: Keep an eye on your birds’ behavior, appetite, and droppings to quickly detect any signs of sickness. The early identification of a health problem can prevent the spread of the disease and help ensure proper treatment.
  • Breeding: Proper selection of breeding stock is essential to producing healthy offspring that are free from genetic defects.

Breeding For Improved Egg Production

Breeding Ayam Cemani chickens for improved egg production requires careful selection of breeding stock based on specific traits that influence productivity. Here are some factors to consider when breeding Ayam Cemani chickens for improved egg production:

  • Age: Choose hens that are between six to twelve months old for optimal egg production.
  • Traits: Select breeding stock based on desired traits such as egg size, shell quality, and productivity. By selecting hens that lay larger and more frequent eggs, you can achieve improved egg production over time.
  • Genetics: The genetic makeup of Ayam Cemani chickens can significantly influence their egg-laying capabilities. Choosing breeding stock based on genetic traits that support higher productivity can lead to healthier and more prolific layers in the future.
  • Parentage: Ensure that the breeding pairs that you choose have no close blood relationship with each other to avoid genetic abnormalities and avoid mating with sick or weak birds.
  • Records: Keeping accurate records of breeding stock and their offspring can help you identify which traits are dominant and passed down from generation to generation. This information can help you make informed decisions about which birds to breed for improved egg production.

Inbreeding can result in lower productivity, and it is essential to avoid it. Instead, outcrossing with unrelated birds can bring beneficial traits from other, healthier breeds. However, selective breeding programs for improved productivity in Ayam Cemani chickens can be time-consuming and require considerable patience and expertise.

Incubation And Hatching Of Ayam Cemani Chicken Eggs

Incubating and hatching Ayam Cemani chicken eggs is a rewarding process that requires careful attention to detail. Here are some essential factors to consider when incubating and hatching Ayam Cemani chicken eggs:

  • Incubator: Use a reliable incubator that maintains a consistent temperature, humidity, and airflow throughout the incubation period. The recommended temperature for incubating Ayam Cemani eggs is 99 to 101 degrees Fahrenheit, and the recommended humidity level is 50 to 55% percent.
  • Egg selection: Only select clean, unbroken eggs for incubation. Dirty or cracked eggs can cause health problems in the chicks, and cracked eggs may not hatch.
  • Incubation time: Ayam Cemani chicken eggs take around 21 days to hatch, but this period may vary slightly depending on the incubator’s conditions.
  • Turning: Turning the eggs several times a day is essential to prevent the yolk from sticking to the shell and rupturing blood vessels, leading to developmental issues. Automated egg turners may be purchased and installed in larger incubators.
  • Humidity: It is important to maintain consistent humidity levels throughout the incubation period, particularly during the final few days before hatching as dry air can negatively impact chick fine down development.
  • Candling of eggs: Candling the eggs at the seven-day mark helps confirm the egg’s viability and lets you remove any eggs that are not developing correctly.
  • Hatching: Prepare for the chicks’ hatching by providing a clean and warm environment in your brooder. After hatching, chicks require careful attention to temperature, water, and feed.

Challenges And Common Issues In Ayam Cemani Chicken Egg Production

While Ayam Cemani chickens are generally easy to care for, some challenges can arise when raising them for egg production. Here are some common issues that Ayam Cemani chicken owners may face:

  • High cost: Due to their rareness and unique characteristics, Ayam Cemani chickens and their eggs tend to be costly compared to other chicken breeds. Their high price limits their accessibility to many poultry farmers and enthusiasts.
  • Lower production: Ayam Cemani chickens have a lower egg production rate compared to traditional laying breeds. This fact can make fulfilling demand challenging if one relies solely on Ayam Cemani chicken eggs.
  • Climate requirements: Ayam Cemani chickens are sensitive to temperature changes and swings of humidity, and their egg production rates may decrease significantly in extreme temperatures.
  • Health issues: Ayam Cemani chickens are susceptible to certain health problems, such as coccidiosis, lice, and fleas. Once these health problems occur, their egg production rates will decrease.
  • Broodiness: Ayam Cemani hens can become broody, which can lead to reduced egg production or infertile eggs if not adequately watched.
  • Feed Quantity and Quality: Proper feeding is essential for healthy and productive birds. Overfeeding or underfeeding can lead to health problems or decreased egg production. Poor diet or nutrient imbalances can also lead to weaker eggshells or reduction in egg numbers.

Several solutions exist to these issues. One of the most advocated solutions is to improve breeding practices to develop more robust and better-adapted offspring that can perform under various environmental conditions. Implementing proper feeding and management practices can lead to increased productivity, while biosecurity measures can mitigate the risk of disease and pest infestations.

Future Prospects Of Ayam Cemani Chicken Egg Production

Ayam Cemani chickens have garnered significant attention worldwide due to their unique colors and rarity, leading to a surge in popularity over the past few years. The breed’s ability to produce all-black eggs further extends the fascination and there are several potential emerging prospects for Ayam Cemani chicken egg production.

  • Market development: The demand for Ayam Cemani chicken eggs worldwide continues to grow, with high-end restaurants, specialty food stores, and online platforms catering to a niche market for rare and exotic food items. The growth of this market provides potential business opportunities for poultry farmers who raise Ayam Cemani chickens for egg production and can meet the market demand.
  • Organic and slow-food movements: The increasing interest in organic and slow-food movements among consumers could provide additional prospects for Ayam Cemani chicken egg production. These movements often advocate for locally sourced, small-scale rearing of rare breeds such as Ayam Cemani chickens.
  • Hybridization Programs: Programs aimed at crossbreeding Ayam Cemani chickens with other breeds have begun to emerge, with the aim of increasing productivity and improving traits without losing the innate traits of Ayam Cemani chickens. This hybridization program aims to feature the rare black eggs and increase productivity without compromising the bird’s uniqueness and conservation.
  • Conservation programs: Ayam Cemani chickens are listed as a rare breed of chicken, and conservation efforts have been initiated to preserve their genetics and natural traits. These conservation programs could spur interest in breeding these chickens for egg production in ways that maintain their genetic characteristics and rarity.


Ayam Cemani chicken egg production is a fascinating process that requires careful care and attention to detail. This breed of chicken is unique and exciting, not only because of its all-black appearance but also because of its rarity and market value. Ayam Cemani chicken egg production provides a high-quality and nutritious food source, with eggs rich in essential nutrients and a higher yolk-to-white ratio than traditional chicken eggs.

The key to successful egg production begins with maintaining optimal health and wellness of the chickens through a balanced diet, clean environment, good breeding practices, and biosecurity measures. With proper feeding and management practices, Ayam Cemani chickens can thrive, leading to more consistent and high-quality egg production.

avatar James
Hey, I'm James, a hardworking homesteader for more than 30 years. I enjoy the feeling of accomplishment that comes from tending my flock. I've raised chickens and ducks for eggs and meat for many years. I also have experience with other poultry too. Learn more

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